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Save to lightbox. Portrait of a pretty fourteen year old Scottish girl. The girl wears a Scottish skirt red saturated color and a white blouse.

Girl kissing a toy Beautiful blonde plays with Teddy bear. Small scottish girl. In the s the curriculum was reformed to take account of the whole range of abilities.

Gender differences disappeared as girls' attainment caught up with boys in the early s. From the early Middle Ages there were bardic schools, that trained individuals in the poetic and musical arts, but because Scotland was a largely oral society, little evidence of what they taught has survived.

In the early Middle Ages monasteries served as major repositories of knowledge and education, often running schools and providing a small, educated and overwhelmingly male, elite, who were essential to create and read documents in a largely illiterate society.

In the High Middle Ages, new sources of education arose. Choir and grammar schools were designed to train priests, with an emphasis respectively on music and Latin grammar.

The reorganisation of the church that began in the reign of David I —53 gave the church a clearer diocesan and parochial structure, meaning that the seats of sheriffdoms like Perth received schools that were usually under monastic patrons.

The new religious orders that became a major feature of Scottish monastic life in this period also brought new educational possibilities and the need to train larger numbers of monks.

Benedictine and Augustinian foundations probably had almonry schools, [3] charity schools using funds from the almoner to provide a type of bursary to educate young boys, who might enter the priesthood.

St Andrews, which was both the seat of a bishop and the site of a major Augustinian foundation, had both a grammar school, under the archdeacon , and a song school, under the priory.

The number and size of song and grammar schools seems to have expanded rapidly from the s. Sometimes, as at Lochwinnoch , they were taught both music and grammar.

Dominican friars were noted for their educational achievements [8] and were usually located in urban centres, probably teaching grammar, as at Glasgow and Ayr.

Educational provision was probably much weaker in rural areas, [7] but there were petty or reading schools in rural areas that provided an elementary education.

Girls of noble families were taught in nunneries such as Elcho , Aberdour and Haddington. By the end of the fifteenth century Edinburgh also had schools for girls, sometimes described as "sewing schools", whose name probably indicates one of their major functions, although reading may also have been taught in these schools.

This sometimes resulted in conflict, as between the burgh of Aberdeen and the cathedral chancellor, when the former appointed a lay graduate as schoolmaster in , and when a married man was appointed to the similar post in Perth.

All this resulted in an increase in literacy, which was largely concentrated among a male and wealthy elite, [4] with perhaps 60 per cent of the male nobility being literate by the end of the period.

The humanist concern with increasing public access to education was shared by the Protestant reformers, who saw schools as vehicles for the provision of moral and religious education for a more godly society.

After the Protestant party became dominant in , the First Book of Discipline set out a plan for a school in every parish, but this proved financially impossible.

Schools were supported by a combination of kirk funds, contributions from local heritors or burgh councils and parents that could pay.

They were inspected by kirk sessions of local elders, which checked for the quality of teaching and doctrinal purity. These were often informally created by parents in agreement with unlicensed schoolmasters, using available buildings and are chiefly evident in the historical record through complaints and attempts to suppress them by kirk sessions because they took pupils away from the official parish schools.

However, such private schools were often necessary given the large populations and scale of some parishes. They were often tacitly accepted by the church and local authorities and may have been particularly important to girls and the children of the poor.

There is evidence of about schools for the period between and The parish schools were "Inglis" schools, teaching in the vernacular and taking children to the age of about 7, while the grammar schools took boys to about The widespread belief in the limited intellectual and moral capacity of women came into conflict with a desire, intensified after the Reformation, for women to take greater personal moral responsibility, particularly as wives and mothers.

In Protestantism this necessitated an ability to learn and understand the catechism and even to be able to independently read the Bible, but most commentators of the period, even those that tended to encourage the education of girls, thought they should not receive the same academic education as boys.

Girls were frequently taught reading, sewing and knitting, but not writing. In an act in Privy council commanded every parish to establish a school "where convenient means may be had".

After the Parliament of Scotland ratified this law and the Education Act of , a tax on local landowners was introduced to provide the necessary endowment.

After the Bishop's Wars —40 , Scotland had virtual independence from the government in Westminster. A loophole which allowed evasion of the education tax was closed in the Education Act of , which established a solid institutional foundation for schools on Covenanter principles, [18] emphasising the role of presbyteries in supervision.

In rural communities these acts obliged local landowners heritors to provide a schoolhouse and pay a schoolmaster, known in Scotland as a dominie , while ministers and local presbyteries oversaw the quality of the education.

In many Scottish towns, burgh schools were operated by local councils. Hospitals continued to be built by benefactors and some of these had very impressive buildings, like that of Robert Gordon's Hospital in Aberdeen, which was designed by William Adam — in the s.

Until the late eighteenth century most schools buildings were indistinguishable from houses, but the wealth from the Agricultural Revolution led to a programme of extensive rebuilding.

Most schools had a single schoolroom, which could hold up to 80 pupils, were taught by a single schoolmaster. There might be smaller adjoining rooms for the teaching of infants and girls.

There was sometimes with a schoolmaster's house in the same style nearby. Many burgh schools moved away from this model of teaching from the late eighteenth century as the new commercial and vocational subjects led to the employment of more teachers.

From the s urban schools were often rebuild in a more imposing classical style, from public subscription, or a legacy, and renamed academies.

One of the effects of the extensive network of parish schools was the growth of the "democratic myth", which in the nineteenth century created the widespread belief that many a "lad of pairts" had been able to rise up through the system to take high office and that literacy was much more widespread in Scotland than in neighbouring states, particularly England.

By the eighteenth century many poorer girls were being taught in dame schools , informally set up by a widow or spinster to teach reading, sewing and cooking.

In the Scottish Highlands, popular education was challenged by problems of distance and physical isolation, as well as teachers' and ministers' limited knowledge of Scottish Gaelic , the primary local language.

Here the Kirk's parish schools were supplemented by those established from by the Scottish Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge. Its aim in the Highlands was to teach English language and end the attachment to Roman Catholicism associated with rebellious Jacobitism.

As society urbanised and population expanded there was a growing shortfall in provision. The General Assembly of the Church of Scotland formed an education committee in The committee had established "assembly schools" by By May it was claimed that schools had been built, along with two teacher training colleges and a ministerial training college, [30] schoolmasters were being paid direct from a central education fund and over 44, children being taught in Free Church schools.

Attempts to supplement the parish system included Sunday schools. Originally begun in the s by town councils, they were adopted by all religious denominations in the nineteenth century.

The movement peaked in the s. By the Baptists had more Sunday schools than churches and were teaching over 10, children.

The ideas were taken up in Aberdeen where Sheriff William Watson founded the House of Industry and Refuge, and they were championed by Scottish minister Thomas Guthrie who wrote Plea for Ragged Schools , after which they rapidly spread across Britain.

Scots played a major part in the development of teacher education. Andrew Bell — pioneered the Monitorial System , by which the more able pupils would pass on the information they had learned to other children and which developed into the pupil-teacher system of training.

Artists Annie French and Bessie MacNicol are also widely recognised today for their contributions to drawing, printing and painting. The influences of their Arts and Crafts and Art Nouveau styling continues to be felt internationally today, in the work of many artists and designers.

The Glasgow Boys were a loose group of young artists that represented the beginnings of modernism in Scottish painting. Instead, they painted contemporary rural subjects, often working out of doors and painting directly onto the canvas.

A decorative art style popular in Europe and North America in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. British movement of the late nineteenth century which sought to revive handcrafts and improve design in an age of increasing mass-production.

Key thinkers associated with the movement are William Morris and John Ruskin. Glasgow: A Prosperous City The late nineteenth century and early twentieth centuries were a period of economic prosperity for Glasgow, with more money leading to greater commercial patronage for local artists.

Who were the Glasgow Girls? Styles and Influences The Glasgow Girls members were various and covered a broad range of styles, from avant-garde design and decorative arts to watercolour and oil painting, drawing and needlework.

Decorative artist and illustrator Helen Paxton Brown.

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The old academies and Higher Grade schools became senior secondaries, giving a more academic education, presenting students for the leaving certificate, which was the entry qualification for the universities.

Selection between the two types of school was determined at age 12 by an intelligence test, the "qualifying examination", known colloquially as "the qualy".

While most Episcopalian schools would be absorbed through local mergers, [45] the Catholic schools, with 94, pupils in , [33] retained their distinct religious character, access to schools by priests and the requirement that school staff be acceptable to the Church.

These would be subsumed into local government in Space was less constrained and styles tended to be simpler with some experiments in modernism.

Unlike the Education Act in England and Wales, which established the tripartite system , the Education Scotland Act was a consolidation measure, because universal secondary education had already been in place for over a decade.

As a result, secondary education was the major area of growth, particularly for girls, who stayed on in full-time education in increasing numbers throughout the century.

Selection was ended by the Labour government in , which recommended that councils produced one kind of comprehensive secondary school that took all the children in a given neighbourhood.

By the late s 75 per cent of children were in non-selective schools and by the early s only the five per cent of children in private schools were subject to selection.

There was no distinctive Scottish style of school building in this period and patterns reflected those used in England, tending to be more open in plan and less rigid in design.

Existing schools were also adapted for more child-centred learning. New qualifications were developed to cope with changing aspirations and economics, with the Leaving Certificate being replaced by the Scottish Certificate of Education Ordinary Grade 'O-Grade' and Higher Grade 'Higher' qualifications in , which became the basic entry qualification for university study.

The greater availability of academic qualifications encouraged students to stay on at school. In 22 per cent of students stayed on beyond age 15, but by the number staying on beyond 16 was 74 per cent.

In only 22 per cent of pupils achieved five or more passes at ordinary grade. By the proportion achieving the equivalent in the standard grade was 55 per cent.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Main article: Education in Medieval Scotland. Main article: Education in early modern Scotland.

See also: Reformation in Scotland. Main article: Scottish education in the nineteenth century. See also: Scottish religion in the nineteenth century.

Main article: Education in Scotland in the twentieth century. Murdoch, "Schools and schooling: I to ", in M. Lynch, ed.

Bawcutt and J. Boynton, "Boy singers in Monasteries and Cathedrals", in S. Boynton and E. Ewen, "'Hamperit in ane hony came': sights, sounds and smells in the Medieval town", in E.

Cowan and L. Mackie, B. Lenman and G. Boran and C. Anderson, "Buildings: 2 educational", in M. Anderson, "The history of Scottish Education pre", in T.

Bryce and W. Gatherer, "Scottish teachers", in T. Checkland and S. Parsons, "Church and state in Victorian Scotland: disruption and reunion", in G.

Parsons and J. Conroy, "Catholic Education in Scotland", in M. Hayes and L. Bebbington, "Missions at Home", in M. Burke and I. Peters, "Scottish education: an international perspective" in T.

Patterson, "Schools and schooling: 3. Mass education —present", in M. Walker, "The religious factor", in T. Davies, "'They sing that song': football and sectarianism in Glasgow in the s and s", in J.

Flint and J. Education in Scotland. Art Law Music Schools Universities. Gaelic English. Art colleges Further education colleges Gaelic medium schools Independent schools State schools Universities.

Lists of schools in Scotland. Categories : History of education in Scotland History of schools. Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history.

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